Irene Mata, marketing manager de EPLAN Software & Services

“No nos podemos quedar al margen del avance tecnológico del resto de industrias europeas avanzadas como Alemania, Francia e Italia”

  • “Las nuevas necesidades de producción exigen cambios importantes en las estructuras de las empresas”

A su juicio, ¿cómo ha contribuido la última crisis a cambiar los procesos de fabricación en la industria española?


La crisis en el sector industrial, sufrida los últimos diez años, obligó a las empresas fabricantes a optimizar y modernizar sus procesos de fabricación. Y desde 2015 se está percibiendo una reactivación del mercado. Se está invirtiendo más en maquinaria y equipos; y exportamos el 40% de nuestra producción. El mercado es mucho más exigente, con una demanda más especializada, y requiere que los fabricantes busquen procesos estandarizados pero flexibles, que permitan fabricar soluciones “llave en mano”. Es decir, flexibilizar una producción en serie.


¿Qué otros cambios requieren las nuevas necesidades?


Las nuevas necesidades de producción exigen cambios importantes en las estructuras de las empresas, más fáciles de asumir en las grandes empresas y más costosos en el perfil de las pequeñas y medianas que, no olvidemos, es mayoritario en el tejido industrial español.

El sector industrial ha aprendido de las crisis: no nos podemos quedar al margen del avance tecnológico del resto de industrias europeas avanzadas como son Alemania, Francia e Italia.


¿Qué retos conlleva la automatización?


Es necesario encontrar vías para actualizar y mejorar los procesos de fabricación. No será tarea fácil, pero es vital si se quiere sobrevivir en el entorno 4.0. Y es importante darse cuenta de que estas innovaciones pueden empezar a aplicarse en el presente, implementando pequeños cambios, como una digitalización gradual en los procesos de fabricación y el mantenimiento de instalaciones.


Las industrias con un medio/alto grado de digitalización son las que sobrevivirán, puesto que serán más flexibles para adaptar su producción a una demanda que cada vez fluctúa más.

Otro reto que tenemos por delante y que será clave para el futuro de los procesos de fabricación es el impacto de la robótica, que en un plazo de 10 años lo habrá revolucionado todo.


Y, por último, la necesidad de especialización en la formación. Cada vez se necesitarán perfiles más especializados y multidisciplinares, formados en nuevas tecnologías, en procesos de fabricación inteligentes y conocimientos de robótica, realidad aumentada, análisis de datos, lean manufacturing, etc.


¿Qué medidas y soluciones habrá que adoptar irremediablemente?


Soluciones digitales y herramientas de ingeniería inteligente (CAE, BIM, etc.), sobre todo en la pequeña y mediana empresa, que le permitan una mejor optimización de los recursos productivos y, así, poder afrontar con más competitividad las demandas del mercado actual.

Las industrias españolas deben abrazar la innovación, convertirse en un agente activo de la transformación del modelo de producción de España, apostar por una mejora de la productividad de la industria, incentivar la competitividad entre empresas y la internacionalización. Tenemos un buen ejemplo en la industria del automóvil.


Pero todo esto no será posible si el mercado español no cuenta con perfiles profesionales preparados y conocedores de las nuevas tecnologías. Muestra de ello son las numerosas universidades españolas que ofrecen ya estudios especializados en Industria 4.0.





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